Kosovo and the law of humanitarian intervention case western. Sparked by genocidal acts on the part of the serbdominated yugoslavian government against ethnic albanians, the 78day operation was launched. With the intention of having the state of kosovo fully participating in the processes of euroatlantic integration. The kosovo conflict, 1998 stefan troebst introduction at present, kosovo in albanian kosova is an administrative unit of 10,887 square kilometres 4. It is important to recall the enormous effort made by nato and the international community to avoid military intervention over kosovo, while. Section ii sets forth the traditional justification for. The kosovo crisis in an international law perspective. The bombings continued until an agreement was reached that led to the withdrawal of yugoslav armed forces from kosovo, and the establishment of the united nations. Nine years after the end of natos bombardment of serbia, there are questions being asked about the real motives for the deployment of the alliances troops in. Kosovo serbia and the nato intervention politics essay. Since kosovo remains a part of yugoslavia in fact and in law, the current military action raises questions of external intervention in civil strife. Kosovo country handbook this handbook provides basic reference information on kosovo, including its geography, history, government, military forces, and communications and transportation networks. This information is intended to familiarize military personnel with local customs and area knowledge to assist them during their assignment to kosovo.
On april 25th, students from over 35 colleges and universities around the u. To conclude, natos intervention in kosovo in 1999 was welcomed by many for addressing the plight of kosovar albanians, and is deemed successful by many western states. The kosovo situation and nato military action asil. In reality, kosovo presents little basis for optimism with regard to libya. It was fought by the forces of the federal republic of yugoslavia i. Together with the cnn factor, the other side of the cnn factor serves to severely distort the perception of the humanitarian price of inaction. In this 1999 article, michael mandelbaum explains why previous nato interventions, such as that in kosovo, had just the opposite effect of what nato intended, leading to civilian suffering and regional instability. Divergent perspectives on the kosovo crisis through a. The kosovo intervention european journal of international law. Uk labour leader, ed miliband, told the house of commons on 21 march 2011 that by taking action in kosovo we saved the lives of tens of thousands of people. The report of the kosovo commission will provide an independent assessment of conflict and intervention that can assist in advancing dialogue amongst all.
The united nations mission in kosovo unmik then took over the administration of the territory. Clashes over the territory of kosovo have characterized the balkans for decades, but the turning point occurred within the span of one year 19981999 and sparked an international humanitarian intervention. Natos humanitarian intervention in kosovo bluff was called, air strikes had to commence since victory is the only exit strategy32 this calls into question the view that nato intervened. Nato s military intervention in kosovo is a highly controversial issue due to its violation of the general rule in the international law that prohibits the use of force, even in the case of a. Far from being tony blairs good war, the assault on yugoslavia was as wrong as the invasion of iraq. Pdf natos military intervention in kosovo is a highly controversial issue due to its violation of the general rule in the international law that.
Bbc news europe why russia opposes intervention in kosovo. The nato bombing of yugoslavia was the north atlantic treaty organisations nato military operation against the federal republic of yugoslavia during the kosovo war. Republic of kosovo each, a party, and together, the parties desire to conclude an agreement to improve international tax compliance. The kosovo war was an armed conflict in kosovo that started in late february 1998 and lasted until 11 june 1999. The following is my personal reflection on kosovo one year on. It is easy enough to make the case that natos intervention in kosovo was illegal, and that such interventions should remain illegal in the future. Washington how can college students from across the nation work together with leading foreign policy makers and international experts to potentially avert a future crisis in kosovo. The final chapter in the narrative presents kosovo today a province administered by the united nations under security council resolution 1244. Furthermore, the kosovo police does not have its own integrity plan, and there should be integrity tests to assess the performance of police officers. When nato launched its air campaign, the situation in kosovo was one of rising ethnic violence, suppr ession of democracy, a breakdown of law and order, systematic human rights abuses by the ruling authorities, and a.
Nato members are also subject to the north atlantic treaty, but its use of force. In this case, though, the civil strife is likely to endanger peace and security in neighboring states and has. Why russia opposes intervention in kosovo russianmade equipment is central to serb air defence systems president yeltsin has expressed his doubts about foreign military intervention in kosovo. The province was located in serbian territory, but its population consisted of an overwhelming majority of ethnic albanians about 1. Over the ensuing three months, nato airpower gradually forced yugoslavia to accept western terms for a. But nato ministers have already agreed to dispatch up to 30,000. Intervention by nato at kosovo was a collective humanitarian intervention in the common interest,5 carrying out the responsibility of the world community to address threats to.
The air strikes lasted from march 24, 1999 to june 10, 1999. Intervention in kosovo kosovo was a province of yugoslavia that traditionally enjoyed a limited form of autonomy during the period of communist domination. Learn more about the kosovo conflict and its history. Serbia and montenegro, which controlled kosovo before the war, and the kosovo albanian rebel group known as the kosovo liberation army kla, with air support from the north atlantic treaty organisation nato. Officially, nato has not yet approved the intervention. In my view kosovo does meet the strict criteria for a justified intervention. British defence secretary george robertson has announced in parliament that the 4th armoured brigade will be sent from germany to the wartorn province of yugoslavia. International law and the nato intervention in kosovo. Pdf nato intervention in kosovo in light of security. The facet of this intervention in view of legality is the topic of this paper. The nato intervention in kosovo, however, marked the beginning of the new era in international relations.
The kosovo crisis ultimately resulted in kosovos international supervision and its unilateral declaration of independence. Natos humanitarian intervention in kosovo by boon kwan. In a solemn manner, we approve the constitution of the republic of kosovo. Bbc regional analyst stephen mulvey examines the forces that drive russias policy in the balkans. Natos intervention in the conflict over kosovo was perceived as a humanitarian. The libya intervention, it is hoped, will have a similarly positive outcome. Kosovo and the myth of liberal intervention this article is more than 9 years old. Pdf natos military intervention in kosovo and the diplomatic. In the former yugoslav republic of macedonia 1 nato troops built refugee camps, refugee reception centres and emergency feeding stations, as well as. The decision by the united states and nato to intervene in kosovo for humanitarian purposes is part of an emerging norm in international law. David chandler offers a rigorous critique of this apparently benign shift in international relations to reveal the worrying political implications of a new human rights.
The case for a fully independent kosovo, objectively, is at best moot. Part ii provides an analysis of aspects of the intervention. Lessons from the war in kosovo the heritage foundation. The alliance fought only after belgrade turned a deaf ear to diplomacy, and nato knew the risks it was running. Whereas, the united states of america enacted provisions commonly known as the foreign account tax compliance act fatca, which introduce a reporting regime for financial. Nato s military intervention over kosovo brought into bold prominence, as noted earlier, ongoing debates about the legality and legitimacy of the alliances action. He was speaking in a debate on british military intervention in libya, which had started a few days earlier. In resolution 1199 1998 of 23 september 1998 and in resolution 1203 1998 of 24 october 1998 it affirmed that the situation in kosovo constitutes a threat to peace and security. Bilateral agreement between the us and kosovo to implement. Kosovo conflict, 199899 conflict in which ethnic albanians opposed ethnic serbs and the government of yugoslavia the rump of the former federal state, comprising the republics of serbia and montenegro in kosovo. Nato s historical overview claims, during 1998, open conflict between serbian military and police forces and kosovar albanian forces resulted in the deaths of over 1,500 kosovar albanians and forced 400,000 people from their homes. Natos military intervention in kosovo is a highly controversial issue due to its violation of the general rule in the international law that prohibits the use of force, even in the case of a. Commons, uk foreign secretary robin cook pointed to similar reasons as those cited. To conclude, nato s intervention in kosovo in 1999 was welcomed by many for addressing the plight of kosovar albanians, and is deemed successful by many western states.
Serb killings and expulsions in the serbian province of kosovo, the campaign. When nato launched its air campaign, the situation in kosovo was. Legitimacy of the nato bombing of yugoslavia wikipedia. The legitimacy under international law of the 1999 nato bombing of the federal republic of yugoslavia has been seriously questioned. Kosovo and the myth of liberal intervention neil clark. Nato forces have been at the forefront of the humanitarian efforts to relieve the suffering of the many thousands of refugees forced to flee kosovo by the serbian ethnic cleansing campaign. Statements by leaders of nato member states during the intervention confirm that the primary impetus for military action in kosovo and other parts of the fry was. A 1991 estimate specified that 90 percent of kosovos citizens were albanian and 8 percent were serbs. However, this essay has critically examined the justifications given to defend the intervention, and applied principles of jus ad humanitarianism and jus ad bellum to question. With regard to kosovo, the security council already stated in resolution 1160 1998 of 31 march 1998 that it was acting under chapter vii of the charter.
Natos humanitarian war aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa over kosovo the 11week bombing campaign conducted by nato in spring 1999 against the federal republic of yugoslavia fry has many claims to uniqueness. The nato bombing of yugoslavia was the north atlantic treaty organisation s nato military operation against the federal republic of yugoslavia during the kosovo war. A realist perspective introduction this essay attempts to show, by employing the logic of realism, that normative underpinnings of humanitarian intervention use of military force by one country in another for the safety of the latters citizens are essentially misplaced and intervention runs contrary to the practice of international relations. The republic of kosovo is an independent, sovereign, democratic, unique and indivisible state. At 4,203 square miles, kosovo is slightly smaller than the state of connecticut with about half the population 1. Other articles where united nations mission in kosovo is discussed. On the 17 th february the assembly of kosovo approved a declaration of independence in a bid to become the seventh state to emerge from the defunct socialist federal republic of yugoslavia sfry. The nato war in kosovo did not come out of the blue. The costs and risks of a protracted commitment to the peacekeeping mission in kosovo make it imperative that policymakers draw the proper lessons from. It was the first sustained use of armed force by the nato alliance in its 50year. Kosovo, nato intervention judson knight operation allied force, the nato north atlantic treaty organization action in the yugoslav province of kosovo in 1999, marked the first time the organization actually undertook a largescale troop mobilization. The situation in kosovo, with 2,000 deaths in 2 years prior to intervention, was a minor conflict with a relatively low level of humanitarian emergency.20 650 1522 719 1573 123 337 274 520 698 1001 5 484 533 792 634 432 1288 512 1444 824 92 954 728 1237 798 355 647 250 594 1002 764 442 1058 1349 1161 1440 101 1400 1256 21 484 759 188 719 754