The bombings continued until an agreement was reached that led to the withdrawal of yugoslav armed forces from kosovo, and the establishment of the united nations. In resolution 1199 1998 of 23 september 1998 and in resolution 1203 1998 of 24 october 1998 it affirmed that the situation in kosovo constitutes a threat to peace and security. Despite this, every year the police performs a performance assessment of police officers through a questionnaire related to the daily work of each officer. To conclude, natos intervention in kosovo in 1999 was welcomed by many for addressing the plight of kosovar albanians, and is deemed successful by many western states. The kosovo intervention european journal of international law. Natos humanitarian intervention in kosovo by boon kwan. Clashes over the territory of kosovo have characterized the balkans for decades, but the turning point occurred within the span of one year 19981999 and sparked an international humanitarian intervention. This information is intended to familiarize military personnel with local customs and area knowledge to assist them during their assignment to kosovo.
The facet of this intervention in view of legality is the topic of this paper. This note attempts to establish criteria for legal humanitarian intervention and evaluate kosovo according to those criteria. Natos military intervention in kosovo is a highly controversial issue due to its violation of the general rule in the international law that prohibits the use of force, even in the case of a. Natos humanitarian intervention in kosovo bluff was called, air strikes had to commence since victory is the only exit strategy32 this calls into question the view that nato intervened. The air strikes lasted from march 24, 1999 to june 10, 1999.
But nato ministers have already agreed to dispatch up to 30,000. Pdf natos military intervention in kosovo and the diplomatic. Mailing address counterpunch po box 228 petrolia, ca 95558 telephone 1707 6293683. Lessons from the war in kosovo the heritage foundation.
The nato bombing of yugoslavia was the north atlantic treaty organisation s nato military operation against the federal republic of yugoslavia during the kosovo war. David chandler offers a rigorous critique of this apparently benign shift in international relations to reveal the worrying political implications of a new human rights. The nato war in kosovo did not come out of the blue. A realist perspective introduction this essay attempts to show, by employing the logic of realism, that normative underpinnings of humanitarian intervention use of military force by one country in another for the safety of the latters citizens are essentially misplaced and intervention runs contrary to the practice of international relations. Nato members are also subject to the north atlantic treaty, but its use of force. The nato bombing of yugoslavia was the north atlantic treaty organisations nato military operation against the federal republic of yugoslavia during the kosovo war. The kosovo situation and nato military action asil. Why russia opposes intervention in kosovo russianmade equipment is central to serb air defence systems president yeltsin has expressed his doubts about foreign military intervention in kosovo.
It is easy enough to make the case that natos intervention in kosovo was illegal, and that such interventions should remain illegal in the future. International law and the nato intervention in kosovo. Kosovo, nato intervention judson knight operation allied force, the nato north atlantic treaty organization action in the yugoslav province of kosovo in 1999, marked the first time the organization actually undertook a largescale troop mobilization. In their view, humanitarian intervention is a violation of these rules safeguarding the independent choices of other political communities, and is inherently open to 1 independent international commission on kosovo, kosovo. Bbc news europe why russia opposes intervention in kosovo. Sparked by genocidal acts on the part of the serbdominated yugoslavian government against ethnic albanians, the 78day operation was launched. Is there a legal basis for the nato intervention in kosovo. With the intention of having the state of kosovo fully participating in the processes of euroatlantic integration. Learn more about the kosovo conflict and its history. Officially, nato has not yet approved the intervention. Pdf natos military intervention in kosovo is a highly controversial issue due to its violation of the general rule in the international law that. At 4,203 square miles, kosovo is slightly smaller than the state of connecticut with about half the population 1. With regard to kosovo, the security council already stated in resolution 1160 1998 of 31 march 1998 that it was acting under chapter vii of the charter.
Commons, uk foreign secretary robin cook pointed to similar reasons as those cited. The nato intervention in kosovo, however, marked the beginning of the new era in international relations. The situation in kosovo, with 2,000 deaths in 2 years prior to intervention, was a minor conflict with a relatively low level of humanitarian emergency. He was speaking in a debate on british military intervention in libya, which had started a few days earlier. Natos intervention in the conflict over kosovo was perceived as a humanitarian. In a solemn manner, we approve the constitution of the republic of kosovo. Statements by leaders of nato member states during the intervention confirm that the primary impetus for military action in kosovo and other parts of the fry was. When nato launched its air campaign, the situation in kosovo was. In this case, though, the civil strife is likely to endanger peace and security in neighboring states and has. Bbc regional analyst stephen mulvey examines the forces that drive russias policy in the balkans. Together with the cnn factor, the other side of the cnn factor serves to severely distort the perception of the humanitarian price of inaction. The case for a fully independent kosovo, objectively, is at best moot. Nato s military intervention over kosovo brought into bold prominence, as noted earlier, ongoing debates about the legality and legitimacy of the alliances action. However, this essay has critically examined the justifications given to defend the intervention, and applied principles of jus ad humanitarianism and jus ad bellum to question.
Since kosovo remains a part of yugoslavia in fact and in law, the current military action raises questions of external intervention in civil strife. Nato forces have been at the forefront of the humanitarian efforts to relieve the suffering of the many thousands of refugees forced to flee kosovo by the serbian ethnic cleansing campaign. It was the first sustained use of armed force by the nato alliance in its 50year. British defence secretary george robertson has announced in parliament that the 4th armoured brigade will be sent from germany to the wartorn province of yugoslavia. On april 25th, students from over 35 colleges and universities around the u. On the 17 th february the assembly of kosovo approved a declaration of independence in a bid to become the seventh state to emerge from the defunct socialist federal republic of yugoslavia sfry. The vojvodina regained nominal autonomous status in 2002, but some local groups continued to call for a more extensive form of selfrule. Legal analysis and a more persuasive paradigm599 4 see roberts, natos humanitarian war over kosovo, 41 survival 1999 no. Republic of kosovo each, a party, and together, the parties desire to conclude an agreement to improve international tax compliance. Serbia and montenegro, which controlled kosovo before the war, and the kosovo albanian rebel group known as the kosovo liberation army kla, with air support from the north atlantic treaty organisation nato. Legitimacy of the nato bombing of yugoslavia wikipedia. The kosovo crisis ultimately resulted in kosovos international supervision and its unilateral declaration of independence. Kosovo conflict, 199899 conflict in which ethnic albanians opposed ethnic serbs and the government of yugoslavia the rump of the former federal state, comprising the republics of serbia and montenegro in kosovo.
When nato launched its air campaign, the situation in kosovo was one of rising ethnic violence, suppr ession of democracy, a breakdown of law and order, systematic human rights abuses by the ruling authorities, and a. The final chapter in the narrative presents kosovo today a province administered by the united nations under security council resolution 1244. A 1991 estimate specified that 90 percent of kosovos citizens were albanian and 8 percent were serbs. Bilateral agreement between the us and kosovo to implement.
Uk labour leader, ed miliband, told the house of commons on 21 march 2011 that by taking action in kosovo we saved the lives of tens of thousands of people. Backs kosovo pact, clears way for nato intervention, wash. Kosovo country handbook this handbook provides basic reference information on kosovo, including its geography, history, government, military forces, and communications and transportation networks. The kosovo crisis in an international law perspective. Over the ensuing three months, nato airpower gradually forced yugoslavia to accept western terms for a. To conclude, nato s intervention in kosovo in 1999 was welcomed by many for addressing the plight of kosovar albanians, and is deemed successful by many western states. In this 1999 article, michael mandelbaum explains why previous nato interventions, such as that in kosovo, had just the opposite effect of what nato intended, leading to civilian suffering and regional instability. Intervention by nato at kosovo was a collective humanitarian intervention in the common interest,5 carrying out the responsibility of the world community to address threats to. Kosovo and the myth of liberal intervention this article is more than 9 years old. The province was located in serbian territory, but its population consisted of an overwhelming majority of ethnic albanians about 1. Part ii provides an analysis of aspects of the intervention. The legitimacy under international law of the 1999 nato bombing of the federal republic of yugoslavia has been seriously questioned.
Kosovo serbia and the nato intervention politics essay. In my view kosovo does meet the strict criteria for a justified intervention. Other articles where united nations mission in kosovo is discussed. Pdf nato intervention in kosovo in light of security. Far from being tony blairs good war, the assault on yugoslavia was as wrong as the invasion of iraq. Natos humanitarian war over kosovo columbia university. Natos humanitarian war aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa over kosovo the 11week bombing campaign conducted by nato in spring 1999 against the federal republic of yugoslavia fry has many claims to uniqueness. In the former yugoslav republic of macedonia 1 nato troops built refugee camps, refugee reception centres and emergency feeding stations, as well as. Washington how can college students from across the nation work together with leading foreign policy makers and international experts to potentially avert a future crisis in kosovo. The kosovo war was an armed conflict in kosovo that started in late february 1998 and lasted until 11 june 1999. Intervention in kosovo kosovo was a province of yugoslavia that traditionally enjoyed a limited form of autonomy during the period of communist domination. The alliance fought only after belgrade turned a deaf ear to diplomacy, and nato knew the risks it was running.
Section ii sets forth the traditional justification for. The libya intervention, it is hoped, will have a similarly positive outcome. Nato s historical overview claims, during 1998, open conflict between serbian military and police forces and kosovar albanian forces resulted in the deaths of over 1,500 kosovar albanians and forced 400,000 people from their homes. Kosovo and the myth of liberal intervention neil clark. It is important to recall the enormous effort made by nato and the international community to avoid military intervention over kosovo, while. Furthermore, the kosovo police does not have its own integrity plan, and there should be integrity tests to assess the performance of police officers. The republic of kosovo is an independent, sovereign, democratic, unique and indivisible state. Serb killings and expulsions in the serbian province of kosovo, the campaign. Nine years after the end of natos bombardment of serbia, there are questions being asked about the real motives for the deployment of the alliances troops in. Nato s military intervention in kosovo is a highly controversial issue due to its violation of the general rule in the international law that prohibits the use of force, even in the case of a. The decision of nato to send troops to kosovo marks a decisive turningpoint. The following is my personal reflection on kosovo one year on. The decision by the united states and nato to intervene in kosovo for humanitarian purposes is part of an emerging norm in international law. The united nations mission in kosovo unmik then took over the administration of the territory.203 1043 694 969 806 1007 1604 1202 984 717 1138 970 1324 380 1532 1383 554 151 1142 1577 876 1140 1017 742 1134 1033 77 438 592 1052 818 551 1042 1334